Introductory Chemistry: Pearson New International Edition

Concepts and Critical Thinking
7e édition

VitalSource eBook (VitalBook) - En anglais 48,00 € DRM

Spécifications


Éditeur
Pearson Education
Édition
7
Auteur
Charles H. Corwin,
Langue
anglais
BISAC Subject Heading
SCI013000 SCIENCE / Chemistry
BIC subject category (UK)
PN Chemistry
Code publique Onix
05 Enseignement supérieur
Date de première publication du titre
01 novembre 2013
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Classification thématique Thema: Chimie

VitalSource eBook


Date de publication
01 novembre 2013
ISBN-13
9781292033884
Ampleur
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 656
Code interne
1292033886
Protection technique e-livre
DRM

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Sommaire


 

1 Introduction to Chemistry  

 

1.1   Evolution of Chemistry  

 

1.2   Modern Chemistry  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  “Worth Your Salt?”  

1.3   Learning Chemistry  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  A Student Success Story

Summary    •   Key Terms    •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

Prerequisite Science Skills  

 

PSS.1   Measurements

 

PSS.2   Significant Digits

PSS.3   Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits

PSS.4   Adding and Subtracting Measurements

PSS.5   Multiplying and Dividing Measurements

PSS.6   Exponential Numbers

PSS.7   Scientific Notation

 

2 The Metric System  

 

2.1 Basic Units and Symbols

 

CRITICAL THINKING The International System of Measurement (SI)

2.2 Metric Conversion Factors

2.3 Metric—Metric Conversions

2.4 Metric—English Conversions

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Olympics

CRITICAL THINKING World Trade Center

2.5   The Percent Concept

2.6 Volume by Calculation

2.7 Volume by Displacement

2.8 The Density Concept

2.9 Temperature

2.10   The Heat Concept

Summary   •   Problem-Solving Organizer  

Key Terms    •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

3 Matter and Energy  

 

3.1   Physical States of Matter  

 

3.2   Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures  

3.3   Names and Symbols of the Elements  

CRITICAL THINKING Aluminum or Aluminium?  

3.4   Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Elements 104 and Beyond  

3.5   Compounds and Chemical Formulas  

3.6   Physical and Chemical Properties  

3.7   Physical and Chemical Changes  

3.8   Conservation of Mass  

3.9   Potential and Kinetic Energy  

3.10    Conservation of Energy  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Recycling Aluminum

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

4 Models of the Atom  

 

4.1   Dalton Model of the Atom  

 

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  John Dalton  

4.2   Thomson Model of the Atom  

4.3   Rutherford Model of the Atom  

4.4   Atomic Notation  

4.5   Atomic Mass  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Heavy Water  

4.6   The Wave Nature of Light  

4.7   The Quantum Concept  

4.8   Bohr Model of the Atom  

CRITICAL THINKING Neon Lights  

4.9   Energy Levels and Sublevels  

4.10    Electron Configuration  

4.11    Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom  

Summmary •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

5 The Periodic Table  

 

5.1   Classification of Elements  

 

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Dmitri Mendeleev  

5.2   The Periodic Law Concept  

5.3   Groups and Periods of Elements

CRITICAL THINKING IUPAC Group Numbers  

5.4   Periodic Trends  

5.5   Properties of Elements  

5.6   Blocks of Elements  

5.7   Valence Electrons  

5.8   Electron Dot Formulas  

5.9   Ionization Energy  

5.10    Ionic Charges  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Evolution of Chemical Elements  

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

6 Language of Chemistry  

 

6.1   Classification of Compounds  

 

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Antoine and Marie Lavoisier  

6.2   Monoatomic Ions  

6.3   Polyatomic Ions  

6.4   Writing Chemical Formulas  

CRITICAL THINKING Nutritional Potassium  

6.5   Binary Ionic Compounds  

6.6   Ternary Ionic Compounds  

6.7   Binary Molecular Compounds  

6.8   Binary Acids  

6.9   Ternary Oxyacids  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  IUPAC Nomenclature  

Summary   •   Nomenclature Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

7 Chemical Reactions  

 

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Fireworks  

 

7.1   Evidence for Chemical Reactions  

7.2   Writing Chemical Equations  

7.3   Balancing Chemical Equations  

7.4   Classifying Chemical Reactions  

7.5   Combination Reactions  

7.6   Decomposition Reactions  

7.7   The Activity Series Concept  

7.8   Single-Replacement Reactions  

7.9   Solubility Rules  

7.10    Double-Replacement Reactions  

7.11    Neutralization Reactions  

CRITICAL THINKING Household Chemicals  

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises

Chapter Self-Test  

 

8 The Mole Concept  

 

8.1   Avogadro’s Number  

 

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Analogies for Avogadro’s Number  

8.2   Mole Calculations I  

8.3   Molar Mass  

8.4   Mole Calculations II  

8.5   Molar Volume  

8.6   Mole Calculations III  

8.7   Percent Composition  

8.8   Empirical Formula  

8.9   Molecular Formula  

CRITICAL THINKING Avogadro’s Number  

Summary   •   Problem—Solving Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

9 Chemical Equation Calculations  

 

9.1   Interpreting a Chemical Equation  

 

9.2   Mole—Mole Relationships  

CRITICAL THINKING Iron versus Steel  

9.3   Types of Stoichiometry Problems  

9.4   Mass—Mass Problems  

9.5   Mass—Volume Problems  

9.6   Volume—Volume Problems  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Manufacturing Ammonia  

9.7   Limiting Reactant Concept  

9.8   Limiting Reactant Problems  

9.9   Percent Yield  

Summary   •   Problem-Solving Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

10    Gases

 

10.1    Properties of Gases  

 

10.2    Atmospheric Pressure  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Greenhouse Effect  

10.3    Variables Affecting Gas Pressure  

10.4    Boyle’s Law: Pressure—Volume Relationships  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Robert Boyle  

10.5    Charles’s Law: Volume—Temperature Relationships  

10.6    Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure—Temperature Relationships  

10.7    Combined Gas Law  

10.8    The Vapor Pressure Concept  

10.9    Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures  

10.10 Ideal Gas Behavior  

10.11 Ideal Gas Law  

CRITICAL THINKING Conceptualizing Gases  

Summary   •   Problem—Solving Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

11    Liquids and Solids  

 

11.1    Properties of Liquids  

 

11.2    The Intermolecular Bond Concept  

11.3    Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, and Surface Tension  

11.4    Properties of Solids

11.5    Crystalline Solids  

11.6    Changes of Physical State  

11.7    Structure of Water  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Water Purification  

11.8    Physical Properties of Water  

11.9    Chemical Properties of Water  

11.10 Hydrates  

CRITICAL THINKING Bottled Water  

Summary   •   Key Terms •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

12    Chemical Bonding  

 

12.1    The Chemical Bond Concept  

 

12.2    Ionic Bonds  

12.3    Covalent Bonds  

12.4    Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules  

12.5    Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions

12.6    Polar Covalent Bonds  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Linus Pauling  

12.7    Nonpolar Covalent Bonds  

12.8    Coordinate Covalent Bonds  

12.9    Hydrogen Bonds  

12.10 Shapes of Molecules  

CRITICAL THINKING Diamond versus Graphite  

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

13    Solutions  

 

13.1    Gases in Solution  

 

13.2    Liquids in Solution  

13.3    Solids in Solution  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Colloids  

13.4    The Dissolving Process

13.5    Rate of Dissolving  

13.6    Solubility and Temperature  

13.7    Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions  

13.8    Mass/Mass Percent Concentration  

13.9    Molar Concentration  

CRITICAL THINKING Water Fluoridation  

13.10 Dilution of a Solution  

13.11 Solution Stoichiometry  

Summary   •   Problem—Solving Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

14    Acids and Bases  

 

14.1    Properties of Acids and Bases  

 

14.2    Arrhenius Acids and Bases  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Svante Arrhenius  

14.3    Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases  

14.4    Acid—Base Indicators  

14.5    Acid—Base Titrations  

14.6    Acid—Base Standardization  

14.7    Ionization of Water  

14.8    The pH Concept  

14.9    Advanced pH Calculations  

CRITICAL THINKING Acid Rain  

14.10 Strong and Weak Electrolytes  

14.11 Net Ionic Equations  

Summary   •   Problem—Solving Organizer  

Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

15    Advanced Problem Solving

15.1    Advanced Problem-Solving Strategies

15.2    Concept Maps — Mole Relationships

15.3    Concept Maps — Stoichiometry

15.4    Multiple-Reaction Stoichiometry

CRITICAL THINKING Nanotechnology

15.5    Advanced Problem-Solving Examples

   Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises

   Online Exercises 

Chapter Self-Test

 

16    Chemical Equilibrium  

 

16.1    Collision Theory  

 

16.2    Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions  

16.3    The Chemical Equilibrium Concept  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Ozone Hole  

16.4    General Equilibrium Constant, Keq  

16.5    Equilibria Shifts for Gases  

16.6    Ionization Equilibrium Constant, Ki  

16.7    Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases  

16.8    Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, Ksp  

16.9    Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds  

   Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

17    Oxidation and Reduction  

 

17.1    Oxidation Numbers  

 

17.2    Oxidation—Reduction Reactions  

17.3    Balancing Redox Equations: Oxidation Number Method  

17.4    Balancing Redox Equations: Half-Reaction Method  

17.5    Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions  

17.6    Voltaic Cells  

17.7    Electrolytic Cells  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Hybrid Vehicles  

Summary   •   Key Terms   • Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

18 Nuclear Chemistry  

 

18.1 Natural Radioactivity  

 

18.2 Nuclear Equations  

18.3 Radioactive Decay Series  

18.4 Radioactive Half-Life  

18.5 Applications of Radionuclides  

CRITICAL THINKING  Nuclear Medicine  

18.6 Induced Radioactivity  

18.7 Nuclear Fission  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Nuclear Power Plant  

18.8 Nuclear Fusion  

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

19 Organic Chemistry  

 

19.1 Hydrocarbons  

 

19.2 Alkanes  

19.3 Alkenes and Alkynes  

19.4 Arenes  

19.5 Hydrocarbon Derivatives  

19.6 Organic Halides  

19.7 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers  

19.8 Amines  

19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones  

19.10 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides  

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Forensic Chemistry  

Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 

20    Biochemistry  

 

20.1    Biological Compounds  

20.2    Proteins  

20.3    Enzymes  

20.4    Carbohydrates  

20.5    Lipids  

CRITICAL THINKING Vitamins  

20.6    Nucleic Acids  

CRITICAL THINKING Left- and Right-Handed Molecules  

Summary •   Key Terms   •   Exercises  

Chapter Self-Test  

 


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