Human Learning: Pearson New International Edition


6e édition

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Spécifications


Éditeur
Pearson Education
Édition
6
Auteur
Jeanne Ellis Ormrod,
Langue
anglais
BISAC Subject Heading
EDU009000 EDUCATION / Educational Psychology > PSY008000 PSYCHOLOGY / Cognitive Psychology & Cognition > PSY004000 PSYCHOLOGY / Developmental / Child
BIC subject category (UK)
JMC Child & developmental psychology > JNC Educational psychology > JMAQ Cognitivism, cognitive theory > JMRL Learning
Code publique Onix
05 Enseignement supérieur
Date de première publication du titre
01 novembre 2013
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Classification thématique Thema: Psychopédagogie
Classification thématique Thema: Connaissance et psychologie cognitive
Classification thématique Thema: Psychologie de l’enfant, psychologie du développement
Classification thématique Thema: Groupes d’âge : enfants

VitalSource eBook


Date de publication
01 novembre 2013
ISBN-13
9781292033976
Ampleur
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 740
Code interne
1292033975
Protection technique e-livre
DRM

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Sommaire


PART I. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN LEARNING

 

Chapter 1. Learning and the Brain   

Basic Building Blocks of the Human Nervous System

   Neurons

   Synapses

   Glial Cells

Brain Structures and Functions

   Methods in Brain Research

   Parts of the Brain

   The Left and Right Hemispheres

   Interconnectedness of Brain Structures

Development of the Brain

   Prenatal Development

   Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

   Development in Middle Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood

   Factors Influencing Brain Development

   To What Extent Are There Critical Periods in Brain Development?

   To What Extent Is the Brain “Prewired” to Know or Learn Things?

The Physiological Basis of Learning

Educational Implications of Brain Research

Summary

 

Chapter 2. Perspectives on Learning  

The Importance of Learning

Defining Learning

Determining When Learning Has Occurred

Research, Principles, and Theories

   How Theories of Learning Have Evolved over Time

   Advantages of Theories

   Potential Drawbacks of Theories

   A Perspective on Theories and Principles

Applying Knowledge about Learning to Instructional Practice

Overview of the Book

Summary

 

 

 

PART II. BEHAVIORIST VIEWS OF LEARNING

Chapter 3. Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning   

Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism

Classical Conditioning

   The Classical Conditioning Model

   Classical Conditioning in Human Learning

   Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning

   Cognition in Classical Conditioning

   Changing Undesirable Conditioned Responses

Educational Implications of Behaviorist Assumptions and Classical Conditioning

Summary

 

Chapter 4. Instrumental Conditioning

Thorndike’s Early Research

Rewards and Reinforcement

   Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

   The Various Forms That Reinforcement Can Take

Punishment

   Effective Forms of Punishment

   Ineffective Forms of Punishment

Common Phenomena in Instrumental Conditioning

   Superstitious Behavior

   Shaping

   Chaining

   Extinction

   Effects of Reinforcement Schedules

   Avoidance Learning

Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses in Instrumental Conditioning

   Cueing

   Setting Events

   Generalization

   Stimulus Discrimination

   Behavioral Momentum

Cognition and Motivation in Instrumental Conditioning

Summary

  

Chapter 5. Applications of Instrumental Conditioning   

Applying Behaviorist Principles to Classroom Management

   Concerns about Using Reinforcement and Punishment in the Classroom

   Using Reinforcement to Increase Desirable Behaviors

   Strategies for Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors

Applied Behavior Analysis

   Using Applied Behavior Analysis with Large Groups

   Adding a Cognitive Component to ABA

Instructional Objectives

   Behavioral Objectives

   Current Perspectives on Instructional Objectives

   Usefulness and Effectiveness of Objectives

   Formulating Different Levels of Objectives

Programmed Instruction and Computer-Assisted Instruction

   Effectiveness of PI and CAI

Mastery Learning

   Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)

   Effectiveness of Mastery Learning and PSI

When Behaviorist Techniques Are Most Appropriate

Summary

PART III. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

Chapter 6. Social Cognitive Theory  

General Principles of Social Cognitive Theory

Environmental Factors in Social Learning: Revisiting Reinforcement and Punishment

   Problems with a Strict Behaviorist Analysis of Social Learning

Cognitive Factors in Social Learning

Reciprocal Causation

Modeling

   How Modeling Affects Behavior

   Characteristics of Effective Models

   Behaviors That Can Be Learned through Modeling

   Conditions Necessary for Effective Modeling to Occur

Self-Efficacy

   How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition

   Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy

Self-Regulation

   Elements of Self-Regulation

   Promoting Self-Regulated Behavior

   The Cognitive Side of Self-Regulation

Educational Implications of Social Cognitive Theory

Summary

 

PART IV. COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING

Chapter 7. Introduction to Cognitivism  

Edward Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

Gestalt Psychology

Verbal Learning Research

Introduction to Contemporary Cognitivism

   General Assumptions of Cognitive Theories

   Information Processing Theory

   Constructivism

   Contextual Theories

   Integrating Cognitive Perspectives

General Educational Implications of Cognitive Theories

Summary

 

Chapter 8. Basic Components of Memory

A Dual-Store Model of Memory

   Sensory Register

   Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention

   Working Memory

   Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior

   Knowledge

   Long-Term Memory

Challenges to the Dual-Store Model

   Are Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Different?

   Is Conscious Thought Necessary for Long-Term Memory Storage?

Alternative Views of Human Memory

   Levels of Processing

   Activation

Remembering That The Map Is Not the Territory

Generalizations about Memory and Their Educational Implications

Summary

  

Chapter 9. Long-Term Memory I: Storage and Encoding

Construction in Storage

   Examples of Construction in Action

Long-Term Memory Storage Processes

   Selection

   Rehearsal

   Meaningful Learning

   Internal Organization

   Elaboration

   Visual Imagery

   How Procedural Knowledge Is Acquired

   Does New Knowledge Require a Consolidation Period?

Factors Affecting Long-Term Memory Storage

   Working Memory

   Prior Knowledge

   Prior Misconceptions

   Expectations

   Verbalization

   Enactment

   Repetition and Review

Promoting Effective Storage Processes

Some Final Remarks about Long-Term Memory Storage

Summary

  

Chapter 10. Long-Term Memory II: The Nature of Knowledge

The Various Kinds of Knowledge

   Declarative and Procedural Knowledge

   Explicit and Implicit Knowledge

How Knowledge Is Encoded in Long-Term Memory

   Encoding in Terms of Physical Characteristics

   Encoding in Terms of Actions

   Encoding in Terms of Symbols

   Encoding in Terms of Meanings

   Different Forms of Encoding Are Not Mutually Exclusive

The Organization of Long-Term Memory

   Long-Term Memory as a Hierarchy

   Long-Term Memory as a Network

   Parallel Distributed Processing

Concepts

   Theories of Concept Learning

   Factors Facilitating Concept Learning

Schemas and Scripts

Personal Theories

   Personal Theories versus Reality

   Fostering Theory Development

Worldviews

The Challenge of Conceptual Change

   Promoting Conceptual Change

Development of Expertise

Generalizations about the Nature of Knowledge

Summary

 

Chapter 11. Long-Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting  

How Retrieval Works

   Retrieval Cues

Construction in Retrieval

   The Power of Suggestion: Effects of Subsequently Presented

   Information

   Constructing Entirely New “Memories”

   Remembering Earlier Recollections

   Self-Monitoring During Retrieval

   Important Cautions in Probing People’s Memories

Forgetting

   Decay

   Interference and Inhibition

   Repression

   Failure to Retrieve

   Construction Error

   Failure to Store or Consolidate

   The Case of Infantile Amnesia

General Principles of Retrieval for Instructional Settings

Summary

 

PART V. DEVELOPMENTAL AND CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVES

Chapter 12. Cognitive-Developmental Perspectives  

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

   Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory

   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Current Perspectives on Piaget’s Theory

   Capabilities of Different Age-Groups

   Effects of Experience and Prior Knowledge  

   Effects of Culture

   Views on Piaget’s Stages

Neo-Piagetian Theories of Cognitive Development

   Case’s Theory

Implications of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Theories

Summary

 

Chapter 13. Sociocultural Theory and Other Contextual Perspectives   

Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

   Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory

   Comparing Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories

Current Perspectives on Vygotsky’s Theory

   Social Construction of Meaning

   Scaffolding

   Participation in Adult Activities

   Apprenticeships

   Acquisition of Teaching Skills

   Dynamic Assessment

Adding a Sociocultural Element to Information Processing Theory

   Intersubjectivity

   Social Construction of Memory

   Collaborative Use of Cognitive Strategies

Expanding the Contextualist Framework

General Implications of Sociocultural and Contextualist Theorists

Peer-Interactive Instructional Strategies

   Class Discussions

   Reciprocal Teaching

   Cooperative Learning

   Peer Tutoring

   Communities of Learners

   Technology-Based Collaborative Learning

Summary

 

PART VI. COMPLEX LEARNING AND COGNITION

Chapter 14. Metacognition, Self-Regulated Learning, and Study Strategies  

Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills

Self-Regulated Learning

   The Roots of Self-Regulated Learning

Effective Learning and Study Strategies

   Meaningful Learning and Elaboration

   Organization

   Note Taking

   Identifying Important Information

   Summarizing

   Comprehension Monitoring

   Mnemonics

Development of Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills

Epistemic Beliefs

   Developmental and Cultural Differences in Epistemic Beliefs

   Effects of Epistemic Beliefs

The Intentional Learner

Why Students Don’t Always Use Effective Strategies

Promoting Effective Learning and Study Strategies

Summary

 

Chapter 15. Motivation and Affect

General Effects of Motivation

   Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation

Basic Human Needs

   Drive Reduction

   Arousal

   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

   Competence and Self-Worth

   Self-Determination

   Relatedness

Individual Differences in Motivation

   Need for Affiliation

   Need for Approval

   Need for Achievement

   Dispositions

Affect and Its Effects

   How Affect Is Related to Motivation

   How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition

   Anxiety

Creating a Motivating Classroom Environment

Summary

 

Chapter 16. Transfer, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking

Transfer

   Types of Transfer

   Theories of Transfer

   Factors Affecting Transfer

Problem Solving

   Theories of Problem Solving

   Cognitive Factors in Problem Solving

   Problem-Solving Strategies

   Meaningless Versus Meaningful Problem Solving

Facilitating Transfer and Problem Solving in the Classroom

Critical Thinking

   Developmental, Individual, and Cultural Differences in Critical Thinking

   Fostering Critical Thinking in the Classroom

Summary

 

PART VII. MOTIVATION

 

  

Chapter 17. Cognitive Factors in Motivation  

Interests

   Effects of Interest

   Factors Promoting Interest

Expectancies and Values

   Effects of Expectancies and Values

   Factors Influencing Expectancies and Values

Goals

   Achievement Goals

   Work-Avoidance Goals

   Social Goals

   Career Goals

   Coordinating Multiple Goals

Attributions

   Effects of Attributions

   Factors Influencing the Nature of Attributions

   Explanatory Style: Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness

Motivation, Affect, and Self-Regulation

   How Motivation and Affect Influence Self-Regulation

   How Self-Regulation Influences Motivation and Affect

   Internalized Motivation

Encouraging Motivating Cognitions

   A TARGETS Mnemonic for Motivational Strategies

Summary

 

REFERENCES

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