Cognition: Pearson New International Edition

5e édition

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Pearson Education
Mark H. Ashcraft, Gabriel Radvansky,
BISAC Subject Heading
PSY008000 PSYCHOLOGY / Cognitive Psychology & Cognition
BIC subject category (UK)
JMAQ Cognitivism, cognitive theory > JMRL Learning
Code publique Onix
05 Enseignement supérieur
Date de première publication du titre
01 novembre 2013
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Classification thématique Thema: Connaissance et psychologie cognitive

VitalSource eBook

Date de publication
01 novembre 2013
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 600
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1. Cognitive Psychology : An Introduction


Thinking About Thinking


Memory and Cognition Defined


An Introductory History of Cognitive Psychology


 Anticipations of Psychology

 Early Psychology

 Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism

 Dissatifaction with Behaviorism: The Winds of Change


Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing


 The New Direction

  The Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology


2. The Cognitive Science Approach


 Guiding Principles



Measuring Information Processes


 Getting Started

 Time and Accuracy Measures

 Guiding Analogies


The Information-Processing Approach


 The Standard Theory

 A Process Model

 The Strict Information Processing Approach

 Some Difficulties


The Modern Cognitive Approach: Cognitive Science


 Updating the Standard Theory

 Fixing the Narrowness


Neurocognition: The Brain and Cognition Together


 Basic Neurology

 Brain Anatomy

 Principles of Functioning

 Split Brain Research and Lateralization

 Methods of Investigation


Neural Net Models: Connectionism


3. Perception and Pattern Recognition


Visual Perception


 Gathering Visual Information

 Visual Sensory Memory

 The Early parts of a Fixation

  A Summary for Visual Sensory Memory

Trans-saccadic Memory



Pattern Recognition: Written Language


Gestalt Grouping Principles

The Template Approach

Visual Feature Detection

Beyond Features: Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition

Connectionist Modeling



Object Recognition and Agnosia


 Recognition by Components


 Implications for Cognitive Science


Auditory Perception


 Auditory Sensory Memory

 Auditory Pattern Recognition


4. Attention


 Multiple Meaning of Attention

 Basics of Attention


Basic Input Attentional Processes


 Alertness and Arousal

 Orienting Response and Attention Capture

 Spotlight Attention and Visual Search

 Contrasting Input and Controlled Attention

Hemineglect: An Attention Deficit


Controlled, Voluntary Attention


 Selective Attention and the Cocktail Party Effect

 Selection Models


Attention as a Mental Resource


 Automatic and Conscious Processing Theories

 A Synthesis for Attention and Automaticity

 Disadvantages of Automaticity



5. Short-Term Working Memory



Short-Term Memory: A Limited Capacity Bottleneck

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two

Forgetting from Short-Term Memory


Short-Term Memory Retrieval

Serial Position Effects

Short-Term Memory Scanning: The Sternberg Task




Working Memory


The Components of Working Memory

The Central Executive

The Phonological Loop

The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

The Episodic Buffer


Assessing Working Memory

The Dual Task Method

Working Memory Span


The Role of Working Memory in Cognition

Working Memory and Attention

Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

Working Memory and Reasoning

Sometimes Small Working Memory Spans are Better





6. Learning and Remembering


Preliminary Issues


 Mnemonic Devices

 The Ebbinghaus Tradition of Memory Research



Storing Information in Episodic Memory



 Frequency of Rehearsal

 Two Kinds of Rehearsal

 Depth of Processing

 Challenges to Depth of Processing

 Generation and Enactment

Organization in Storage


Emotion and Survival Value

Context and Encoding Specificity


Retrieving Episodic Information




 Retrieval Failure

 Retrieval Cues


Amnesia and Implicit Memory


 Dissociation of Episodic and Semantic Memory

 Anterograde Amnesia

 Implicit and Explicit Memory


7. Knowing


Semantic Memory


 The Collins and Quillian ( and Loftus) Model

 Smith's Feature Comparison Model

 Empirical Tests of Semantic Memory Models

 Semantic Relatedness


Priming in Semantic Memory


 Nuts and Bolts of Priming Tasks

 Empirical Demonstrations of Priming

 Priming in Other Tasks

 Automatic and Controlled Priming

Priming Is an Implicit Process


Schemata and Scripts

Bartlett’s Research



Evidence of Scripts




<  Context, Connectionism, and the Brain


Connectionism and the Brain



8. Using Knowledge in the Real World


 The Seven Sins of Memory


Facts About the World

The Nature of Propositions

Rules for Deriving Propositions

Are Propositions Real?


Situation Models and Embodied Cognition

Levels of Representation

Remembering Facts




Source Monitoring

Prospective Memory

Knowing What You Know


False Memories, Eyewitness Memory. and "Forgotten Memories"


 False Memories


 Leading Questions and Memory Distortion

 The Misinformation Effect

 Source Misattribution and Misinformation Acceptance

 Stronger Memory Distortion Effects

 Repressed and Recovered Memories


Autobiographical Memories


 The Bahrick Work

 Phenomena of Autobiographical Memory

 The Irony of Memory


9. Language


Linguistic Universals and Functions


 Defining Language

Language Universals

 Animal Communication

 Levels of Analysis, a Critical Distinction, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis


Phonology: The Sounds of Language


 Sounds in Isolation

 Combining Phonemes into Words

Embodiment in Speech Perception

 Speech Perception and Context

 A Final Puzzle


Syntax: The Ordering of Words and Phrases


 Chomsky's Transformational Grammar

 Limitations of the Transformational Grammar Approach

 The Cognitive Role of Syntax


Lexical and Semantic Factors: The Meaning in Language



 The Lexical Representation

 Case Grammar

 Interaction of Syntax and Semantics

 Evidence for the Semantic Grammar Approaches


Brain and Language


Language in the Intact Brain


 Generalizing from Aphasia



10. Comprehension: Written and Spoken Language


Getting Started: An Overview


 Conceptual and Rule Knowledge

 Traditional Comprehension Research

 Online Comprehension Tasks


 Comprehension as Mental Structure Building

 Levels of Comprehension




 Gaze Duration

 Basic Online Reading Effects

 A Model of Reading



Reference, Situation Models, and Events


Situation Models




  Conversation and Gesture


 The Structure of Conversations

 Cognitive Conversational Characteristics

 Empirical Effects in Conversation



11. Problem Solving


 The Status of Problem-Solving Area


Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving


 Early Gestalt Research

 Difficulties in Problem Solving


Insight and Analogy




 Neurocognition in Analogy and Insight


Basics of Problem Solving


 Characteristics of Problem Solving

 A Vocabulary of Problem Solving


Means-End Analysis: A Fundamental Heuristic


 The Basics of Means-End Analysis

 The Tower of Hanoi

 General Problem Solver


Improving Your Problem Solving


 Increase Your Domain Knowledge

 Automate Some Components of the Problem-Solving Solution

 Follow a Systematic Plan

 Draw Inferences

 Develop Subgoals

 Work Backward

 Search for Contradictions

 Search for Relations Among Problems

 Find  a Different Problem Representation

Stay Calm

 If All Else Fails, Try Practice


12. Decisions, Judgments, and Reasoning


Formal Logic and Reasoning



 Conditional Reasoning: If P Then Q

 Hypothesis Testing




 Decisions About Physical Differences

 Decisions About Symbolic Differences

 Decisions About Geographic Distances


Decisions and Reasoning Under Uncertainty


 Algorithms and Heuristics

 Heuristics, Biases, and Fallacies

 The Representativeness Heuristic

 The Availability Heuristics

 The Simulation Heuristics

 The Undoing Heuristics: Counterfactual Reasoning

 Adaptive Thinking and " Fast, Frugal" Heuristics

 The Ongoing Debate


Limitations in Reasoning


 Limited Domain Knowledge

 Limitations in Processing Resources


Appendix: Algorithms for Coin Tosses and Hospital Births

Coin Tosses

Hospital Births 




Photo Credits

Name Index

Subjet Index













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