Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

Core Concepts
7e édition

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Pearson Education
Robert Johnson, Vivian McCann Hamilton, Philip Zimbardo,
BISAC Subject Heading
BIC subject category (UK)
JM Psychology
Code publique Onix
05 Enseignement supérieur
Date de première publication du titre
01 novembre 2013
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Classification thématique Thema: Psychologie

VitalSource eBook

Date de publication
01 novembre 2013
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 776
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Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science

Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 

Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception

Chapter 4: Learning and Human Nature

Chapter 5: Memory

Chapter 6: Thinking and Human Intelligence

Chapter 7: Development over the Lifespan

Chapter 8: States of Consciousness

Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person

Chapter 11: Social Psychology 

Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders

Chapter 14: Stress, Health, and Well-Being 




Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science  

1.1 What Is Psychology – And What Is It Not?  

   Psychology: It’s More than You Think 

   Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 

   Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudopsychology 

   Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

1.3 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 

   Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological Perspective  

   The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern Cognitive Perspective  

   The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior  

   The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Trait and Temperament

   The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 

   The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 

   The Changing Face of Psychology 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major

1.2 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?  

   Four Steps in the Scientific Method

   Five Types of Psychological Research 

   Controlling Biases in Psychological Research  

   Ethical Issues in Psychological Research  

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudopsychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Facilitated Communication 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide


Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 

   Evolution and Natural Selection 

   Genetics and Inheritance 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally?  

   The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 

   The Nervous System 

   The Endocrine System 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?  

   Windows on the Brain 

   Three Layers of the Brain

   Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex  

   Cerebral Dominance 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Left Brain vs. Right Brain 

Chapter Summary

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide


Chapter 4:  Learning and Human Nurture  

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

   The Essentials of Classical Conditioning 

   Applications of Classical Conditioning 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy 

4.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors by Operant Conditioning?  

   Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

   The Power of Reinforcement 

   The Problem of Punishment 

   A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior 

   Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

4.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?  

   Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps 

   Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds out What’s on a Rat’s Mind 

   Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism  

   Rethinking Behavioral Learning in Cognitive Terms

   Brain Mechanisms and Learning 

   “Higher” Cognitive Learning 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Fear of Flying Revisited 

Critical Thinking Applied: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 5: Memory

5.1 What Is Memory?  

   Metaphors for Memory  

   Memory’s Three Basic Tasks 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?

5.2 How Do We Form Memories? 

   The First Stage: Sensory Memory 

   The Second Stage: Working Memory

   The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?

5.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories?  

   Implicit and Explicit Memory 

   Retrieval Cues 

   Other Factors Affecting Retrieval 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue 

5.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? 

   Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting 

   Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause Forgetting  

   Blocking: Access Problems 

   Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context 

   Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories 

   Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories 

   Persistence: When We Can’t Forget 

   The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory 

   Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Recovered Memory Controversy 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence  

6.1 What Are the Components of Thought?  


   Imagery and Cognitive Maps  

   Thought and the Brain 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect 

6.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess?  

   Problem Solving 

   Judging and Making Decisions  

   On Becoming a Creative Genius 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

6.3 How Is Intelligence Measured?  

   Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test 

   American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea  

   Problems with the IQ Formula

   Calculating IQs “on the Curve”

   IQ Testing Today 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child? 

6.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities?  

   Psychometric Theories of Intelligence

   Cognitive Theories of Intelligence  

   Cultural Definitions of Intelligence 

   Animals Can Be Intelligent–But Do They Think? 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 

6.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups?  

   Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration 

   What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced by Heredity? 

   What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced by Environment? 

   Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Question of Gender Differences 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 7: Development Over the Lifespan 

7.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess?  

   Prenatal Development

   The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child  

   Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Not Just Fun and Games: The Role of Child’s Play in Life Success

7.2 What are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood?  

   How Children Acquire Language 

   Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory 

   Social and Emotional Development 


7.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence?  

   Adolescence and Culture 

   Physical Maturation in Adolescence 

   Adolescent Sexuality 

   Neural and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 

   Moral Development: Kohlberg’s Theory 

   Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

7.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face?  

   Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy  

   The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity  

   Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Jim Twins and Your Own Development

Critical Thinking Applied: The Mozart Effect 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 8: States of Consciousness 

8.1 How Is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes? 

   Tools for Studying Consciousness

   Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds 

   What Does Consciousness Do for Us? 

   Coma and Related States 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness?  


   Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives 

   Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders

8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take?  



   Psychoactive Drug States 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction 

Critical Thinking Applied: The Unconscious–Reconsidered 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

9.1 What Motivates Us?

   Why People Work: McClelland’s Theory

   The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

9.2 How Are Our Motivational Priorities Determined?

   Instinct Theory

   Drive Theory

   Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory

   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

   Putting It All Together: A New Hierarchy of Needs

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Determining What Motivates Others

9.3 Where Do Hunger and Sex Fit into the Motivational Hierarchy?

   Hunger: A Homeostatic Drive and a Psychological Motive

   The Problem of Will Power and Chocolate Cookies   

   Sexual Motivation: An Urge You Can Live Without 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The What and Why of Sexual Orientation

9.4 How Do Our Emotions Motivate Us?

   What Emotions Are Made Of

   What Emotions Do for Us

   Counting the Emotions

   Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Gender Differences in Emotion Depend on Both Biology and Culture 

9.5 What Processes Control Our Emotions?

   The Neuroscience of Emotion 

   Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U

   Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Old Issues 

   How Much Conscious Control Do We Have over Our Emotions?

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Detecting Deception

Critical Thinking Applied: Do Lie Detectors Really Detect Lies? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person

10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities?  

   Biology, Human Nature, and Personality 

   The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment 

   The Effects of Nature: Dispositions and Mental Processes  

   Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People and Unusual Behavior

10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities? 

   Personality and Temperament 

   Personality as a Composite of Traits 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type 

10.3 What Mental Processes Help Shape Our Personalities?  

   Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation and Mental Disorder 

   Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health 

   Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning 

   Current Trends: The Person in a Social System

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology

10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others?  

   Implicit Personality Theories 

   Self-Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives 

   The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Personality of Time

Critical Thinking Applied: The Person-Situation Controversy 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 11: Social Psychology  

11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior?  

   Social Standards of Behavior 


   Obedience to Authority 

   Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research 

   Some Real-World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience to Authority Paradigm

   The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction 

   Need Help? Ask for It! 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U 

11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? 

   Interpersonal Attraction 

   Loving Relationships 

   Making Cognitive Attributions 

   Prejudice and Discrimination 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Lift and Values Affirmations

11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations that Influence Behavior?  

   The Stanford Prison Experiment

   Chains of System Command 

   Preventing Bullying by Systematic Changes and Reframing   

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Is Terrorism “A Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide


Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders  

12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder?  

   Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder  

   Indicators of Abnormality

   A Caution to Readers 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity 

12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV?  

   Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System 

   Mood Disorders 

   Anxiety Disorders  

   Somatoform Disorders

   Dissociative Disorders 


   Developmental Disorders

   Personality Disorders

   Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions: The Biggest Category of Them All 

   Gender Differences in Mental Disorders   


12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People?  

   Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization 

   The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Insane Places Revisited—Another Look at the Rosenhan Study 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders  

13.1 What Is Therapy?  

Entering Therapy

The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy  

Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too 

13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders?  

Insight Therapies 

Behavior Therapies

Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis 

Evaluating the Psychological Therapies 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help? 

13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders?  

Drug Therapy 

Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders 

Hospitalization and the Alternatives 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend? 

13.4 How Do the Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare?

Depression  and Anxiety Disorders: Psychological versus Medical Treatment  

Schizophrenia: Psychological versus Medical Treatment 

"The Worried Well" and Other Problems: Not Everyone Needs Drugs 

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

Critical Thinking Applied: Evidence-Based Practice 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 


Chapter 14: From Stress to Health, and Well-Being  

14.1 What Causes Distress?  

   Traumatic Stressors 

   Chronic Stressors 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress 

14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically?  

   Physiological Responses to Stress 

   Stress and the Immune System 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Cognitive Appraisal of Ambiguous Threats

14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress?  

   Type A Personality and Hostility 

   Locus of Control  




   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 

14.4 How Can We Transform Negative Stress into Positive Life Strategies?

   Psychological Coping Strategies 

   Positive Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your Health 

   Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective Well-Being 

   PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology

Critical Thinking Applied: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health? 

Chapter Summary 

Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide

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