How To Think Straight About Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

9e édition

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Pearson Education
Keith E. Stanovich,
BISAC Subject Heading
PSY000000 PSYCHOLOGY > SOC024000 SOCIAL SCIENCE / Research > SOC027000 SOCIAL SCIENCE / Statistics
BIC subject category (UK)
JM Psychology > JHBC Social research & statistics
Code publique Onix
05 Enseignement supérieur
Date de première publication du titre
01 novembre 2013
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
Classification thématique Thema: Psychologie
Classification thématique Thema: Recherche sociale et statistiques

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Date de publication
01 novembre 2013
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 218
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1. Psychology Is Alive and Well (and Doing Fine Among the Sciences)


The Freud Problem

The Diversity of Modern Psychology

 Implications of Diversity

Unity in Science

What, Then, Is Science?

Systematic Empiricism

 Publicly Verifiable Knowledge: Replication and Peer Review

 Empirically Solvable Problems: Scientists’ Search for Testable Theories

Psychology and Folk Wisdom: The Problem with “Common Sense”

Psychology as a Young Science




2. Falsifiability: How to Foil Little Green Men in the Head


Theories and the Falsifiability Criterion

 The Theory of Knocking Rhythms

 Freud and Falsifiability

 The Little Green Men

 Not All Confirmations Are Equal

 Falsifiability and Folk Wisdom

 The Freedom to Admit a Mistake

 Thoughts Are Cheap

Errors in Science: Getting Closer to the Truth



 3. Operationism and Essentialism: “But, Doctor, What Does It Really Mean?”


Why Scientists Are Not Essentialists

 Essentialists Like to Argue About the Meaning of Words

 Operationists Link Concepts to Observable Events

 Reliability and Validity

 Direct and Indirect Operational Definitions

 Scientific Concepts Evolve

Operational Definitions in Psychology

 Operationism as a Humanizing Force

 Essentialist Questions and the Misunderstanding of Psychology

 Operationism and the Phrasing of Psychological Questions




4. Testimonials and Case Study Evidence: Placebo Effects and the Amazing Randi


The Place of the Case Study

Why Testimonials Are Worthless: Placebo Effects

The “Vividness” Problem

 The Overwhelming Impact of the Single Case

 The Amazing Randi: Fighting Fire with Fire

Testimonials Open the Door to Pseudoscience




5. Correlation and Causation: Birth Control by the Toaster Method


The Third-Variable Problem: Goldberger and Pellagra

 Why Goldberger’s Evidence Was Better

The Directionality Problem

Selection Bias




6. Getting Things Under Control: The Case of Clever Hans


Snow and Cholera

Comparison, Control, and Manipulation

 Random Assignment in Conjunction with Manipulation Defines the True Experiment

 The Importance of Control Groups

 The Case of Clever Hans, the Wonder Horse

 Clever Hans in the 1990s

 Prying Variables Apart: Special Conditions

 Intuitive Physics

 Intuitive Psychology




7. “But It’s Not Real Life!”: The “Artificiality” Criticism and Psychology


Why Natural Isn’t Always Necessary

 The “Random Sample” Confusion

 The Random Assignment Versus Random Sample Distinction

 Theory-Driven Research Versus Direct Applications

Applications of Psychological Theory

 The “College Sophomore” Problem

 The Real-Life and College Sophomore Problems in Perspective




8. Avoiding the Einstein Syndrome: The Importance of Converging Evidence


The Connectivity Principle

 A Consumer’s Rule: Beware of Violations of Connectivity

 The “Great-Leap” Model Versus the Gradual-Synthesis Model

Converging Evidence: Progress Despite Flaws

 Converging Evidence in Psychology

Scientific Consensus

 Methods and the Convergence Principle

 The Progression to More Powerful Methods

A Counsel Against Despair




9. The Misguided Search for the “Magic Bullet”: The Issue of Multiple Causation


The Concept of Interaction

The Temptation of the Single-Cause Explanation



10.  The Role of Chance in Psychology

The Tendency to Try to Explain Chance Events

Explaining Chance: Illusory Correlation and the Illusion of Control

Chance and Psychology


Personal Coincidences

Accepting Error in Order to Reduce Error: Clinical Versus Actuarial Prediction



11. The Achilles’ Heel of Human Cognition: Probabilistic Reasoning

“Person-Who” Statistics

Probabilistic Reasoning and the Misunderstanding of Psychology

Psychological Research on Probabilistic Reasoning

Insufficient Use of Probabilistic Information

Failure to Use Sample Size Information

The Gambler’s Fallacy

A Further Word About Statistics and Probability




Author Index

Subject Index

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